JOURNAL OF LIFE ECONOMICS http://www.ratingacademy.com.tr/ojs/index.php/jlecon <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>Journal of Life Economics&nbsp;<strong>(E-ISSN: 2148-4139 &amp; DOI Prefix:&nbsp;10.15607)</strong></em>&nbsp;is&nbsp;<strong>an&nbsp;international peer-reviewed&nbsp;</strong>and<strong>&nbsp;periodical journal.</strong><em>&nbsp;</em>It aims to create a forum on economic rationale of life. It brings together the views and studies&nbsp;of academicians, researchers and professionals working in all branches of social sciences, especially economics.&nbsp;The articles in the Journal is published in 4 times a year;&nbsp;&nbsp;WINTER&nbsp;(January),&nbsp; SPRING (April), SUMMER (July)&nbsp;and&nbsp;AUTUMN&nbsp;(October).&nbsp;</p> en-US <p><em>When the&nbsp; article is accepted for publication in the </em><em>Journal of Life Economics</em><em>, authors transfer all copyright in the article to the </em><em>Rating Academy </em><em>Ar-Ge Yazılım Yayıncılık Eğitim Danışmanlık ve Organizasyon Ticaret Ltd. Şti</em><em>.</em><em>The authors reserve all proprietary right other than copyright, such as patent rights.&nbsp;</em></p> <p><em>Everyone who is listed as an author in this article should have made a substantial, direct, intellectual contribution to the work and</em><em> should take public responsibility for it.</em></p> <p><em>Th</em><em>is paper contains works that have </em><em>not previously published or not under consideration for publication in other journals. </em></p> ozge@comu.edu.tr (Özge UYSAL ŞAHİN) cumali.yasar@gmail.com (cumali yaşar) Sun, 28 Jul 2019 18:30:38 +0300 OJS 3.1.1.1 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 DIGITAL CUSTOMER ENGAGEMENT DIMENSIONS IN DIGITAL TRANSFORMATION AND A FRAMEWORK SUGGESTION FOR RETAIL BANKING http://www.ratingacademy.com.tr/ojs/index.php/jlecon/article/view/738 <p><em>Although there are many implications regarding customer experience, retention, loyalty etc. the comprehensive approach for digital customer engagement still needs more attention. Digital platforms leave customer alone with his or her community without bank’s involvement. This approach requires a good business understanding that will match the CE network with digital capabilities. Since the customer engagement is one of the four pillars of digital transformation, retail banks should start to measure digital CE score based on each customer group as a holistic approach to cover full cycle.</em><br><em>Transactional customers who have low relational and emotional exchange will switch the brand easily since they have big price and satisfaction sensitivity. Delighted customers have a good commitment level but requiring interaction and relationship with the brand. Loyal customer’s commitment level changes easily based on market conditions, however they have a good relationship level with the brand. Fans have good relationship and commitment level with the brand. They advocate for the brand easily.</em><br><em><strong>Keywords</strong>: Customer Engagement, Digital Customer Engagement, Digital Transformation, Customer Relationship Management</em><br><em><strong>JEL classification</strong>: M15, M31, O32</em></p> Yakup AKGÜL, Hadi RUBACI ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 http://www.ratingacademy.com.tr/ojs/index.php/jlecon/article/view/738 Thu, 25 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0300 THE EFFECT OF WORK MOTIVATION ON THE EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE WITH ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENTS AS MODERATION VARIABLES AT PT. ASURANSI JIWASRAYA, DENPASAR http://www.ratingacademy.com.tr/ojs/index.php/jlecon/article/view/733 <p><em>Employee Performance is a particular concern for all companies because the achievement of company goals and objectives are dependent on the performance of HR in it. In carrying out the activities of the company Human Resources are influenced by many factors including the influence of internal and external factors. It can be understood that the problem of improving performance is not a problem that can be resolved directly. After going through the calculation results obtained the significance level of research for work motivation system variables on organizational performance by 0,000 &lt;0,05, so that H0 is rejected and H1 is accepted, in other words work motivation has a significant effect on employee performance. There is a positive and significant influence between work motivation on employee performance at PT. Asuransi Jiwasraya, Denpasar seen from the results of t-test obtained t1-count is 5.159 greater than t-table of 1,671 and sig value 0.000 so the first hypothesis is suspected that work motivation has a positive and significant effect on employee performance, accepted. Organizational commitment is able to moderate the effect of work motivation on employee performance. Based on the calculation results obtained by Zhitung (3.19)&gt; Z table (1.98), in other words organizational commitment is an intervening variable (moderation) that connects work motivation with employee performance.</em><br><em><strong>Keywords:</strong> work motivation, employee performance, organizational commitment.</em><br><em><strong>JEL Codes:</strong> J21, M10</em></p> I Wayan SUARTINA, Anak Agung Ngurah Gede SADIARTHA ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 http://www.ratingacademy.com.tr/ojs/index.php/jlecon/article/view/733 Thu, 25 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0300 EVALUATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE CRISES THAT AFFECTED TURKEY AND PRIVATIZATION REVENUES AFTER 2000 http://www.ratingacademy.com.tr/ojs/index.php/jlecon/article/view/734 <p><em>Privatization efforts in Turkey have begun after 1980. Privatizations serve three different purposes: economic, financial and social. The most important of the financial purposes is the aim of “providing income to the government”. In this study, the relationship between crises occurred after 2000 in Turkey and privatization proceeds is evaluated. Some of the crises are caused by the dynamics within the economy, while others are caused by external factors. In this context, the article is evaluate through the crisis of 2001 which occurred due to problems in internal dynamics and the crisis of 2008 which an outsourced global crisis. The aim of this study is to evaluate the status of privatization incomes obtained during these two crises.</em><br><em><strong>Keywords:</strong> Privatization, Economic Crisis, Privatization Incomes, Privatization and Economic Crises in Turkey.</em><br><em><strong>Jel Codes:</strong> H12, H20, H27, L33.</em></p> Tolga SEZDİ, Filiz GİRAY ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 http://www.ratingacademy.com.tr/ojs/index.php/jlecon/article/view/734 Thu, 25 Jul 2019 14:44:39 +0300 ANTALYA + X = BARCELONA: WHICH ECONOMIC POLICIES (X) MUST BE APPLIED ? http://www.ratingacademy.com.tr/ojs/index.php/jlecon/article/view/731 <p><em>The subject and purpose of this study is to examine Antalya, one of Europe's largest tourism centers, in the context of Barcelona. The reason for considering Barcelona as a lath is that it is a bridge in the geographic region of Afro-Eurasia like Antalya and it is located in the post-modern Silk Road. Barcelona is first city of Spain's richest and second one autonomous regions of Catalonia, one of the most developed cities in the world, while Antalya is only the fifth most developed city according to Turkey's local socio-economic criteria. In addition, Barcelona is an "alpha city" according to its globalization and financialization level, while Antalya is not even "beta" or "gamma city". In the vital sectors such as production, transportation, energy and tourism in order for Antalya to be a global alpha city like Barcelona and to be a model for sustainable urbanism in Turkey, which is composed of 3-T (tourism-agriculture-trade), some radical economic policies must be adveanced and applied urgently. For example: X1: Young unemployment should be reduced by creating new employment and income areas such as "biotechnology" and by showing gender justice sensitivity. X2: Efficient agricultural land should be protected and "farm tourism" should be widespread to increase added value in tourism. X3: A large number of large-scale "solar power stations" should be installed in order to increase the diversity and efficiency of electricity in the city where the solar supply is abundant. X4: As the tourist flow is excessive, the "high speed train" project should be initiated in order to contribute to road safety and air traffic in the city and region. X5: The "urban transformation" program based on Euro-Mediterranean hybrid architecture should be accelerated to limit internal migration and distorted construction and to eradicate their bad traces. It should establish a "sister city" relationship between Antalya, which will gain global values from the implementation of local economic policies and inherit them to the future, and Barcelona, one of the most livable and innovative cities of the world. This is a natural requirement for hosting the common Mediterranean civilization and ancient cities. In terms of Antalya, it is necessary for the community to insist on demanding and the strong determination of the city administrators to make the above “unknown X's” “known and visible.”</em><br><em><strong>Key Words:</strong> Antalya Economy, Barcelona, Economic Policies X</em><br><em><strong>JEL Codes:</strong> R58, R59, Z59</em></p> İrfan KALAYCI ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 http://www.ratingacademy.com.tr/ojs/index.php/jlecon/article/view/731 Thu, 25 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0300 ANALYSIS OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INFLATION, BUDGET DEFICIT AND MONEY SUPPLY IN TURKEY BY ARDL APPROACH 1980-2017 http://www.ratingacademy.com.tr/ojs/index.php/jlecon/article/view/754 <p><em>Inflation is considered as a monetary phenomenon and its increase is linked with money supply according to the Monetarist view. In other words, the increase in budget deficits leads to an increase in money supply and as a result, inflation rates rise. Inflation is based on fiscal policies rather than monetary policies according to Price Level Fiscal Theory. Accordingly, increasing budget deficits leads to increases in loans, thus causes interest rates to rise and consequently inflation rises as money supply increases. In this study, the relationship between inflation, budget deficit and money supply in Turkey is analyzed using the ARDL bounds testing approach for the 1980-2017 period. According to the empirical results, there was a positive and significant relationship between inflation and budget deficit both in the long and short term.</em><br><em><strong>Keywords</strong>: Inflation, Deficit, Money Supply, Turkey, ARDL</em><br><em><strong>Jel Codes</strong>: E31, E51, E52</em></p> Begüm ERDİL ŞAHİN ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 http://www.ratingacademy.com.tr/ojs/index.php/jlecon/article/view/754 Thu, 25 Jul 2019 14:46:39 +0300 COMPARISON OF THE PERFORMANCE OF FUZZY TIME SERIES METHODS BASED ON CLUSTERING IN THE ECONOMETRIC TIME SERIES ESTIMATION http://www.ratingacademy.com.tr/ojs/index.php/jlecon/article/view/739 <p><em>Fuzzy Time Series (FTS) methods are used frequently in time series analysis due to their advantages such as having no assumptions, having few observations, being able to process incomplete, uncertain and linguistic data. The FTS consists of 6 steps, each of which has a significant impact on forecasting performance. A number of methods have been developed to improve these steps and hence improve the performance of FTS. Some of these studies are based on the use of fuzzy clustering algorithms in the blurring step of FTS. However, so far, there is no study based on comparing the performance of these methods in the estimation of econometric time series. In this study, 3 FTS methods using the Fuzzy C-Means (FCM), Gustafson-Kessel (GK) and Fuzzy K-Medoids (FKM) clustering algorithms were applied to the 454 econometric time series in the blurring step and the predicted results were compared according to the criterion of conformity 3. As a result of the comparisons, it was concluded that the performance of the FTS method based on BKM algorithm is better.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Keywords:</em></strong><em> Fuzzy Clustering, Fuzzy Time Series, Time Series Analysis, Forecast</em></p> <p><strong><em>JEL Codes:</em></strong><em> C01,C22,C53</em></p> Aytaç PEKMEZCİ, Nevin Güler DİNÇER, Öznur İŞÇİ GÜNERİ ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 http://www.ratingacademy.com.tr/ojs/index.php/jlecon/article/view/739 Thu, 25 Jul 2019 14:47:26 +0300 THE EFFECT OF GLOBALIZATION ON LABOR MARKET AND YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT http://www.ratingacademy.com.tr/ojs/index.php/jlecon/article/view/682 <p><em>Unemployment has always been a problem for humanity. It is important for both the individual and the society to find a place in the employment in order not to leave the people materially and spiritually in the society. For the absence of social classes and disagreements in the society, the active population should be included in the working life. It would be more beneficial to support all individuals who wish to work in the business by not only adhering to the private sector but also with statism.</em></p> <p><em>In the study, the emphasis on youth unemployment was emphasized and it was aimed to contribute to solutions. In this study, adopting the principle of statism and preventing the waste of resources by making a division of labor in all the countries of the world, increasing income inequality, increasing the class differences among the citizens living in countries and reviewing the policies to increase employment in order not to increase the phenomenon of terrorism in countries are discussed.</em></p> <p><em>The survey method wa sapplied in the study and data were collected electronically. Random sampling method was applied in the sample selection and 600 participants were reached. Multiple fit analysis were applied</em></p> <p><em>As a result of the study, gender, age, marital status, education, housing status, differents pending for education and salary expectations among individuals whose unemployment expectations differed. Solutions and suggestions to increase employment are given.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Keywords:</em></strong><em> Globalization, Unemployment, Youth Unemployment, Statism, Multiaple Conformity Analysis </em></p> <p><strong><em>JEL Codes:</em></strong><em> 10, M10, F66, H31, J53</em></p> İbrahim ÇATIR ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 http://www.ratingacademy.com.tr/ojs/index.php/jlecon/article/view/682 Thu, 25 Jul 2019 14:48:07 +0300 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN R&D EXPENDITURES AND ECONOMIC GROWTH: AN EVALUATION ON TURKEY http://www.ratingacademy.com.tr/ojs/index.php/jlecon/article/view/752 <p><em>By R &amp; D activities carried out under newly-emerging economic conditions stimulated by the globalization process, it is possible to increase the production of high value added products. For this reason, the shares allocated for R &amp; D and expenditures are considered as an important factor in the realization and acceleration of growth. In this study, the relationship between R &amp; D expenditures and growth in Turkey is analysed. For this purpose, the R &amp; D expenditures during the period 1990-2015 and gross domestic production in Turkey are comparatively evaluated. In the long term, the cointegration relationship between R &amp; D expenditures and growth is determined by Johansen cointegration analysis. Also a mutual causality relationship is demonstrated between R &amp; D expenditures and growth.</em></p> Deniz Dilara DERELİ, Uğur SALĞAR ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 http://www.ratingacademy.com.tr/ojs/index.php/jlecon/article/view/752 Thu, 25 Jul 2019 14:48:44 +0300 THE PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP WITH CREDIT AND HOSTELS INSTITUTION PRACTICE: THE CASE OF CANAKKALE PROVINCE http://www.ratingacademy.com.tr/ojs/index.php/jlecon/article/view/783 <p><em>The Public Private Partnership model has many benefits such as reduction cost arising from public investments, ensure to comfort of the private sector in the public service, effective distribution risk, and to prevent postponement or inability of construction works of state goods and services due to insufficient budget. In this study, the situation in the Credit and Hostels Institution which is rented with Public Private Partnership model is examined and in this research interview technique as a qualitative research method was used. The participants of the study are the managers of the Credit and Hostels Institution in Canakkale province. As a result of the interviews conducted with the managers, it was aimed to reveal characteristics, qualities, effects, positive and negative aspects of the rented dormitories with the Public Private Partnership model in the literature the lack of a specific study on the use of Public Private Partnership model in the construction of dormitories. Hence increases the importance of the study. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Keywords&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; :</em></strong><em> Public Private Partnership, Credit and Hostels Institution, Canakkale.</em></p> <p><strong><em>JEL Codes&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; :</em></strong><em> H20, H52.</em></p> Mehmet Emin KENANOĞLU ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 http://www.ratingacademy.com.tr/ojs/index.php/jlecon/article/view/783 Fri, 26 Jul 2019 16:06:48 +0300