JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC PERSPECTIVES <p style="text-align: justify;"><em><strong>Journal of Scientific Perspectives</strong> (E-ISSN: 2587-3008 &amp; DOI Prefix:&nbsp;10.26900)&nbsp;is a&nbsp;scholarly&nbsp;and&nbsp;international peer-reviewed journal&nbsp;which started to be published in&nbsp; 2017. It is an&nbsp;open-access electronic journal&nbsp;which is published quarterly in&nbsp;January, April, July, and&nbsp;October</em><strong><em>.</em></strong><em>&nbsp;It is aimed at promoting research worldwide&nbsp;and publishes basic and advanced research work from the fields of&nbsp;basic science and engineering, natural science</em><strong><em>s</em></strong><em>&nbsp;and&nbsp;health sciences. Thus, it provides a forum for researchers for scholarly exchange of ideas, knowledge, and experiences on current issues. The original research papers, technical notes, letter to the editor, debates, case presentations, and reviews, only in&nbsp;English,&nbsp;are published in the journal. All articles published in the journal, are assigned the&nbsp;DOI number. Article submission and follow-up process are carried out by the manuscript submission system.</em></p> en-US <p><em>When the&nbsp; article is accepted for publication in the </em><em>Journal of Scientific Perspectives</em><em>&nbsp;authors transfer all copyright in the article to the </em><em>Rating Academy </em><em>Ar-Ge Yazılım Yayıncılık Eğitim Danışmanlık ve Organizasyon Ticaret Ltd. Şti</em><em>.</em><em>The authors reserve all proprietary right other than copyright, such as patent rights.&nbsp;</em></p> <p><em>Everyone who is listed as an author in this article should have made a substantial, direct, intellectual contribution to the work and</em><em> should take public responsibility for it.</em></p> <p><em>Th</em><em>is paper contains works that have </em><em>not previously published or not under consideration for publication in other journals. </em></p> (Ozlem YAYINTAS) (CUMALİ YAŞAR) Wed, 30 Oct 2019 22:20:50 +0300 OJS 60 A SUPPORT VECTOR-BASED PREDICTIVE MODEL TO REVEAL THE RELATIONSHIPS AMONG ANTIBODY FEATURES AND THEIR EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONS AGAINST HIV <p><em>Despite 4 decades’ effort, an effective HIV-1 vaccine has not been produced owing to the inevitable antigenic diversity of the virus and millions of people around the world have lost their lives due to HIV. Increasing the knowledge of adaptive immune response to vaccination would ultimately lead to an effective HIV cure. Antibodies, which are responsible for protection and fighting against antigens, are vital parts of immune system response. In order to identify discriminative antibodies, which provide protection against HIV, and to disclose the associations between antibody features and their functional outcomes, computational methods, such as feature selection, regression and classification can be used to construct predictive models. Here we used our unsupervised K-Means Based Feature Selection (KBFS) method which is presented in our previous study, to identify functional antibodies that fight against HIV. The accuracy results for the proposed KBFS framework are compared with those presented in a recent study</em><em> and are also compared with results from four different state-of-the-art unsupervised feature selection methods, namely MCFS, InFS, LapFS, and SPFS, along with the entire feature set. Then, support vector based systems are utilised to predict the associations between antibody features and their functional activities, namely gp120-specific antibody dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP), antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and cytokine release activities on RV144 vaccine recipients. Pearson Correlation Coefficient (PCC) metric is used to evaluate the prediction accuracy of the predictive models and to be consistent with the previous study. Our SVR based KBFS framework presented higher accuracy than the original study by improving prediction performance 16% for ADCP assay, 200% for the ADCC assay.</em></p> Ferdi SARAC ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 29 Oct 2019 22:05:05 +0300 THE EFFECT OF NUMBER OF WALLS WITH DIFFERENT THICKNESS ON THE PROPERTIES OF THE POLYCARBONATE PANELS <p><em>Polycarbonate is a durable, strong, transparent new polymer material. It is used as building material or element because of its properties such as high strength, light transmittance, recycling, lightweight and vapor transmittance. Unlike most thermoplastics, polycarbonate undergo large plastic deformations cracking or breaking so it can be produced with different dimensions and shapes. Polycarbonate panels consist of different numbers of walls with different thickness. Generally, the properties of the polycarbonate panels are determined with all structures of the panels. However, the effect of the number of walls should be determined on the characteristic properties of the polycarbonate panels.&nbsp; Especially transparency and thermal transmittance should be effected by the number of walls. In this study, characteristic properties of the polycarbonate panels such as light transmittance, water vapor transmission, impact and bending strengths, should be tested with different numbers of walls or thickness. Finally, the characteristic properties of the polycarbonate panels are suitable when the number of walls and thickness are low.</em></p> Mehmet Serkan YATAĞAN ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 29 Oct 2019 22:10:21 +0300 ON SOME BULLEN-TYPE INEQUALITIES VIA CONFORMABLE FRACTIONAL INTEGRALS <p>In this study, the Author has established a new lemma for α-differentiable function and some inequalities of Bullen-type inequalities for conformable fractional integrals. Some applications are also given. Examples are given to show the results.</p> Musa ÇAKMAK ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 29 Oct 2019 22:06:09 +0300 VOLTAMMETRIC AND CHROMATOGRAPHIC DETERMINATION OF NAPROXEN IN DRUG FORMULATION <p><em>In this work, the electrochemical oxidation of naproxen (NAP) was studied at an ultra-trace graphite electrode (UTGE). The cyclic voltammetry (CV) technique was used to determine the optimum conditions and the effect of pH on the electrochemical oxidation of NAP. Acetate buffer (pH 4.50) was selected as the support electrolyte due to obtaining the highest electronic signal increase during oxidation of NAP at UTGE. The differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) technique was performed for electrochemical determination of NAP. In the optimum conditions, the limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were determined to be 8.6610-8 M and 2.8810-7 M. In addition, the amount of NAP was determined in drug tablets. The recovery studies of NAP from the drug tablet were completed in order to check the accuracy and precision of the applied voltammetric method. Furthermore, the determination of NAP was performed with the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. These two methods were compared in terms of accuracy, precision and recovery studies.</em></p> Selehattin YILMAZ, Suzan YANIK, Gulsen SAGLIKOGLU, Murat SADIKOGLU, Ozlem TONGUC YAYINTAS ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 29 Oct 2019 22:07:57 +0300 FEASIBILITY OF NEARLY-ZERO ENERGY BUILDING RETROFITS BY USING RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN AN EDUCATIONAL BUILDING <p><em>Dissemination of education is vital especially in developing countries like Turkey. Besides, proper use of energy resources is required while dissemination of education is ensured. Considering the regions where energy is limited, renewable energy sources should be used to achieve the goal of a zero-energy building. Moreover, an increase of smart technologies has potantial in order to decrease energy consumption in educational buildings. This paper aims to investigate renewable energy sources to decrease energy consumption to achieve nearly-zero energy building goal by implementing different energy efficient retrofitting scenarios. The retroffitting scenarios are based on renewable energy sources and are presented for an educational building located in Ankara-Turkey, through a Building Energy Simulation Tool, Design Builder Software. In order to develop an accurate model, educational building is monitored and the model is calibrated. Then, various energy efficient retrofitting scenarios are defined such as implementing PV panels, solar collectors and adding wind turbines for electricity generation.</em></p> Cihan TURHAN, Filiz BAL KOÇYİĞİT, Merter Acar ZİNKÇİ, Miromid SAYESTHNOM ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 29 Oct 2019 22:09:42 +0300 BIOCHEMICAL EVALUATIONS OF QUINALPHOS EXPOSED ZEBRAFISH LIVER ORGANOTYPIC TISSUE <p><em>As being a broad-spectrum, organophosphorus insecticide and acaricide, quinalphos is widely used against a range of pests, and has a great threat on aquatic systems. Although the methods for detecting and predicting of the harmful effects of chemicals on non-target organisms are traditionally perfected by in vivo experiments, cell culture methods that being used widely in recent decades is also an important tool for these kinds of research. In order evaluate the effects of quinalphos on liver organotypic culture system of zebrafish, tissue cubes (1-2 mm3) were prepared by dissection and slicing of liver tissues, embedded in agarose and cultured. The cubes were exposed to three different concentrations of quinalphos (2, 4 and 8 mg/L) for 24 and 96 hours. By performing comet assay as an emerging tool for cytotoxicity, it was detected that quinalphos causes DNA damage. Increased levels of catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione-s-transferase were also measured. All of these parameters were noted as concentration- and time-dependent. Our data suggest that organotypic liver tissue culture of zebrafish is a practical alternative to whole fish.</em></p> Burak GÖKÇE, Sema İŞİSAĞ ÜÇÜNCÜ ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 29 Oct 2019 22:08:49 +0300 PRESERVING THE SPATIAL MEMORY IN HISTORIC BUILDINGS AND SPACES AND ITS CONTRIBUTION TO THE URBAN IDENTITY: A CASE STUDY OF ÇANAKKALE URBAN SITE <p><em>In the present study, it is aimed to preserve the place of historic buildings and spaces in the spatial memory together with their images and to investigate its contributions to the urban identity. In this context, an examination was made on eight historic buildings and spaces selected from Çanakkale Urban Site (an avenue, a street, a square, a garden, a courtyard, a religious building, an education building, and a registered old building). Within the scope of this study, a specialist group of 70 people was determined in the survey technique. The aim of the survey technique was to question the spatial memory, urban image, and urban identity cases and their relations with each other through the examples selected from Çanakkale Urban Site.</em></p> <p><em>In this context, when the buildings and spaces which have acquired a place in the urban memory are defined in terms of spatial memory parameters and urban images, this also strengthens their contributions to the urban identity. The buildings and spaces selected as the material in the study are still being used, which strengthens the spatial memory parameters. The spatial memory parameters which affect the places of the buildings and spaces concerned in the urban identity the most are the parameters of “historical and cultural value”, “memory value and continuity of use”, “originality and rarity value”, and “aesthetic and artistic value”, respectively. The historic buildings and spaces identified with all these parameters contribute to the city’s states as a city of “history”, “culture-art”, and “tourism” the most. When the buildings and spaces concerned are evaluated in terms of the urban images, they are mostly identified as “districts”, “nodes”, “paths”, and “landmarks”, which strengthens their places in the urban identity.</em></p> <p><em>As a result of the study, proposals were made for the preservation of the spatial memory parameters in historic buildings and spaces and for the continuity of the historic buildings and spaces by emphasizing the contribution to the formation of the urban image and the urban identity.</em></p> Ayşe Esra CENGİZ, Kübra YANMAZ ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 29 Oct 2019 22:07:09 +0300 RESEARCH ABOUT VISITOR PERCEPTIONS OF ÇANAKKALE MARTYRS’ MEMORIAL <p><em>The Martyrs’ Memorial and historical area, located within the boundaries of Çanakkale province and scene of historically important events, is important for all time with significant domestic and foreign visitor potential from Turkey and many other countries. Due to visitor numbers reaching significant amounts, especially in the summer months, the necessity to renovate, develop and ensure sustainability of landscaping infrastructure and furnishings was revealed in line with visitor perceptions. The study applied face-to-face surveys to 100 individuals over the age of 18 years visiting the area. Data obtained from the survey were evaluated with linear regression analysis in the SPSS 15.0 statistical program. The results of the analysis found an R2 value of 0.516, showing that the independent variables of “open and enclosed viewing terraces, car park, furnishings (like pergolas, seating groups, waste bins, digital information panels) and planting” explained 52% of the variation in the dependent variable of “satisfaction rate”. With the ANOVA test, the “p” value of “0.000” was found, indicating that the regression model was significant for the whole study. The VIF value was 3 and above showing no correlations between independent variables and emphasizing that four variables should remain in the model (open and enclosed viewing terraces, furnishings, car park). In conclusion, in line with visitor perceptions, the necessity to include landscaping in the area especially the role of planting as shade and windbreaks, car park, furnishings like pergola, waste bins, digital information panels and seating groups, and open and enclosed viewing terraces was determined. Applications of these appropriate to the day’s conditions and visitor requirements will contribute to visitor satisfaction.</em></p> Yavuz ALKAN; Abdullah KELKİT ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 29 Oct 2019 22:17:38 +0300 SEED STRUCTURE AND EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT OF SESELI RESINOSUM (APIACEAE) <p><em>The male and female gametophyte development in Seseli resinosum Freyn et Sint were studied with a-light microscope. In order to study the embryology of Seseli resinosum Freyn &amp; Synth that an endemic plant spreading in Zonguldak-Bartin region development of the seed and embryo have been examined. Embryo development of Seseli resinosum was solanad type. In the sections taken zygote, proembryo, 4-cell embryo, 8-cell embryo, spherical embryo, heart-shaped embryo stages were observed. There are differences in the participation of the integument in the formation of the testa. In Apiaceae, only the epidermis of the outer integument forms the seed coat. Since the fruit type is a schizocarp, the testa and the pericarp are inseparable. Testa was seen as 3 or 6 layers. The layers consist of thin-walled cells. The outermost layer is single row and its thickness is less than the other layers.</em></p> Hanife İRİS, Ayşe KAPLAN ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 29 Oct 2019 22:15:10 +0300 EFFECTS OF SOME OF HEAVY METALS ON TOTAL PROTEIN AMOUNT AND PEROXIDASE ACTIVITY IN SOLANUM LYCOPERSICUM MILL <p><em>In this research, different concentrations of cadmium, nickel, copper heavy metals applied on 10 weeks old Solanum lycopersicum Mill. cv. invictus seedlings by irrigation water. As a result of heavy metal applications total protein amount and peroxidase [EC] enzyme activity has been determined by spectrophotometrically. Changing in total protein amount and peroxidase activity in S. lycopersicum seedlings after heavy metal applications has been compared with control group. Depending the application of heavy metals on S. lycopersicum seedlings total protein amount decreased as 57% in 100 ppm of copper application and 10,9% increased in 10 ppm nickel application. The highest increases in peroxidase activity 100 ppm of copper applied and in proportion as 536,03% and treated group with 10 ppm nickel in proportion as 5.97%were determined.</em></p> Gülru YÜCEL, Cüneyt AKI ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 29 Oct 2019 22:04:25 +0300 INVESTIGATION OF BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF 4-HYDROXY-3-(2-HYDROXY-5-METHYLBENZYLIDEAMINO) BENZENESULPHONIC ACID <p><em>In this study, the antimicrobial activity, DNA cleavage, DNA binding and antioxidant properties of a sulfonic acid-based imine compound were investigated. The antimicrobial activity of the compound was investigated for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against&nbsp; some bacteria and yeast cultures.&nbsp; The DNA cleavage activity of the compound was investigated as hydrolytic and oxidative with the gel electrophoresis method. H2O2 was used as an oxidizing agent for detection of the cleavage activity mechanism. The Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) field absorption spectroscopy method was used to determine the binding effect to DNA. The sulfonic acid-based imine compound reacted with Calf Thymus DNA (CT-DNA) which was examined by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. The free radical scavenging activity was determined using the 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. </em></p> <p><em>The studied compound was found to be effective on yeast and bacteria at different concentrations. The compound was found to be more effective on Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 bacteria. DNA cleavage study showed that the compound cleaved DNA without any external agents in hydrolytic and oxidative manner. UV-Vis spectroscopy studies of the interactions between the compound and CT-DNA showed that the compound interacts with CT-DNA via electrostatic binding. The compound to be tested was compared with the butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) solution used as standard. It was found that the compound exhibits good antioxidant activity.</em></p> Elif ÜNALDI, Neslihan DEMİR ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 29 Oct 2019 22:12:13 +0300