JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC PERSPECTIVES <p style="text-align: justify;"><em><strong>Journal of Scientific Perspectives</strong> (E-ISSN: 2587-3008 &amp; DOI Prefix:&nbsp;10.26900)&nbsp;is a&nbsp;scholarly&nbsp;and&nbsp;international peer-reviewed journal&nbsp;which started to be published in&nbsp; 2017. It is an&nbsp;open-access electronic journal&nbsp;which is published quarterly in&nbsp;January, April, July, and&nbsp;October</em><strong><em>.</em></strong><em>&nbsp;It is aimed at promoting research worldwide&nbsp;and publishes basic and advanced research work from the fields of basic and natural science</em><strong><em>s</em></strong><em>&nbsp;and&nbsp;health sciences. Thus, it provides a forum for researchers for scholarly exchange of ideas, knowledge, and experiences on current issues. The original research papers, technical notes, letters to the editor, debates, case presentations, and reviews, only in&nbsp;English,&nbsp;are published in the journal. All articles published in the journal, are assigned the&nbsp;DOI number. Article submission and follow-up processes are carried out by the manuscript submission system.</em></p> en-US <p><em>When the&nbsp; article is accepted for publication in the </em><em>Journal of Scientific Perspectives</em><em>&nbsp;authors transfer all copyright in the article to the </em><em>Rating Academy </em><em>Ar-Ge Yazılım Yayıncılık Eğitim Danışmanlık ve Organizasyon Ticaret Ltd. Şti</em><em>.</em><em>The authors reserve all proprietary right other than copyright, such as patent rights.&nbsp;</em></p> <p><em>Everyone who is listed as an author in this article should have made a substantial, direct, intellectual contribution to the work and</em><em> should take public responsibility for it.</em></p> <p><em>Th</em><em>is paper contains works that have </em><em>not previously published or not under consideration for publication in other journals. </em></p> (Ozlem YAYINTAS) (CUMALİ YAŞAR) Wed, 18 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0300 OJS 60 COMPARISON OF EXAMPLES OF CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE CASES IN TURKISH AND BRITISH MEDIA: PROTECTION OF CHILDREN’S RIGHTS <p><em>This study compares news articles which have documented child sex abuse cases in the Turkish and UK press in terms of their lexical choices and the level of details which they conceal in order to protect the rights of the child. The aim is to shed light on the significance afforded to the protection of children in both countries. Furthermore, the causes and consequences of child sex abuse will be discussed in their social context with mention of the various laws and penalties enforced to deter such acts.</em></p> Ayşe AKPINAR ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 18 Dec 2019 00:38:55 +0300 EVALUATION OF RADIOLOGICAL FINDINGS IN TERMS OF PHYSICAL ABUSE IN CHILDREN UNDER 4 YEARS OF AGE ADMITTED TO EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT <p><em>Physical abuse is defined as non-accidental injury. For 0-3 years of age children, evaluated in the emergency department, the possibility of physical abuse should be considered. The purpose of this study is to discuss the role of radiological findings in the assessment of physical abuse suspicion. Children in 0-3 years of age, admitted with fall to the emergency department of a university hospital in 2018, were retrospectively evaluated on hospital automation system. Data was obtained from electronic health records. The cases were examined in terms of age, gender, falling features, physical and radiological findings related to trauma and suspicion of abuse. Data was analyzed in SPSS program. In 100 cases, 52 (52.0%) were male and the mean age was 28.7±10.6 months. The clinical diagnoses of the cases were 51 (51.0%) falling from the same level, 11 (11.0%) falling from one level to another, and 38 (38.0%) ‘only’ falling. Posttraumatic radiological findings were as follows: 19 (19.0%) cases had soft tissue injury with bone fracture and/or joint dislocation; 17 (17.0%) cases had isolated soft tissue injury and 1 (1.0%) had temporal bone fracture and intracranial traumatic changes. In 11 (11.0%) cases had long bone fractures, 9 (9.0%) were diaphyseal fractures. Two (2.0%) cases had hand-finger, 1 (1.0%) clavicle, 1 (1.0%) calvarial and 1 (1.0%) facial bone fractures. The case with clavicle fracture could not be evaluated in terms of physical abuse suspicion, because of unknown condition of walking. The suspicion of physical abuse was considered in 1 (1.0%) case due to delay in hospital admission. Long bone diaphyseal fractures were most common in children aged 0-3 years. Since this finding showed low specificity to physical abuse, no suspicion of physical abuse was radiologically considered. The delay in hospital admission reveals the importance of evaluating cases from a multidisciplinary point of view in terms of suspicion of physical abuse.</em></p> Nilüfer AYLANÇ, Esin AKGÜL KALKAN, Şenay Bengin ERTEM ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 18 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0300 EXAMINING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EMPATHY and ANGER EXPRESSIONS OF THE DRIVERS <p><em>When human behavior, which is mediated by many different variables, is taken into consideration in a special condition such as traffic, it requires to investigate not only the visible situations that concern the moment, but also the sub factors that cause the resulting behavior. When examining driver behavior, focusing only on cognitive processes can lead to a one-way evaluation of the behavior, which may lead us to ignore factors such as emotions, past experiences and personality. Therefore, driver behavior should be addressed by a comprehensive holistic approach in which emotions and cognitive factors are considered together. The aim of the study is to investigate the role of empathy in the relationship between the situations evoking anger in traffic and anger expressions of the drivers. In order to run the study, data were collected through Demographic information form, Driver Anger Scale (DAS), Driver Anger Expression Inventory (DAX) and Basic Empathy Scale (BES) among 975 participants who are over 18 years of age and active drivers in traffic. According to the results, it has been seen that as people's cognitive empathy levels increased, their adaptive/ constructive anger expressions were increased. Also, the forms of expression of anger, was found to be significantly different according to gender.</em></p> Şahide Güliz KOLBURAN, Hande TASA, Elif Özge ERBAY ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 18 Dec 2019 01:05:32 +0300 EXAMPLE OF GOOD PRACTICE OF VICTIM RIGHTS: COMPARISON OF STUDIES IN CANADA AND TURKEY <p><em>Victim rights is a concept that has been at the agenda &nbsp;in recent years.&nbsp; This issue, which first came as a sub-title of criminology, then came to life in many developed countries, including the United States and Canada, and important steps were taken about it. All cases of violence against children, including sexual abuse, especially against women and to support the needs of victims in cases of domestic violence, especially psychological, medical and legal aspects to be given to victims who have been assaulted in healing process is very important. Organizations in the developed countries are paying attention to this subject matter. </em></p> <p><em>In this study, the practices in Canada that have done important work on Victim Rights will be described as examples of good practice and the situation in our country will be evaluated in terms of Victim Rights by comparing them with the studies in Turkey. </em></p> Nil POLAT ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 18 Dec 2019 01:08:02 +0300 FIELD STUDY ON KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIORS REGARDING VIOLENCE IN TRAFFIC AND ROAD RAGE <p><em>Context and Aim: </em><em>The road rage can be defined as the anger occurred while driving and its level can be associated with aggressive and risky driving, loss of concentration and vehicular control, and near accident misses on traffic. </em><em>The aim of this study is to measure whether the attitudes and behaviors of people in the face of incidents in traffic are covered by road rage and also whether people are aware of their legal rights when they encounter violence in traffic. </em></p> <p><em>Methodology:</em><em> In this study, the factorability of the 14-item short form of Driver Anger Scale (DAS) was investigated among 421 drivers from Turkish population, and SPSS program has been used in the analyses.</em></p> <p><em>Findings:</em><em> Drivers had more difficulty in controlling their anger and showed aggressive behaviors when they felt they were at risk and could control their anger better in cases of impatience, such as waiting for a vehicle to park. The percentage of those who honk in traffic and of those who flash their lights when they get angry in traffic was 71% and 57%, respectively, which suggest that the acts of honking, flashing lights have become normal and are not considered as acts of violence. While 75% of the surveyed drivers, and 80% of the non-lawyers surveyed drivers stated that they did not know their legal rights when they encountered violence in traffic, 81% of the lawyers who participated in the research stated that they knew their legal rights. </em></p> <p><em>Conclusion:</em><em> Violence in traffic ranges from injury to killing, from insulting to sexual harassment, from endangering traffic safety to damage to property.&nbsp; Although there are some regulations proposed in the legal dimension to combat violence in traffic and suggestions to enable drivers to control their anger, the main solution is increasing the level of culture and education. </em></p> Zeynep REVA ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 18 Dec 2019 01:11:17 +0300 ATTITUDES OF HEALTH WORKERS IN FAMILY HEALTH CENTERS ON THE INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN (THE CASE OF MARDIN, TURKEY) <p><em>The aim of this study was to determine the attitudes and practices of health workers working in Family Health Centers in Mardin regarding the intimate partner violence against women. This study was carried out with doctors, nurses, midwives and health officials working at Family Health Centers in Mardin. The study was conducted with 307 health workers. In this study, socio-demographic questionnaire and Health Care Provider Survey of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) Attitudes and Practice were used as a data collection tools. The data was analyzed in the SPSS 20 statistics programme. As a result of the study, it was found that the adequacy level of the attitudes and practices of health workers regarding the intimate partner violence against women was low throughout the study. A statistically significant difference was found between the attitudes and practices of health workers regarding the intimate partner violence against women and occupational, gender, education status, workplace, reporting of violence to the police and the social services (p &lt;0.05). It has been determined that health workers are concerned about their own safety and think about possible legal consequences when questioning the violence against women. As a conclusion health workers should be informed and supported with effective trainings on violence against women.</em></p> Burcu KAYA, Ramazan Özgür ÇATAR ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 18 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0300 THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOUR AND NEGATIVE AUTOMATIC THOUGHTS IN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS: THE MEDIATOR ROLE OF HOPELESSNESS LEVEL <p><em>Violence is increasing day by day. In order to prevent these actions, the reasons underlying the violence of a person against another person should be investigated. In this study, it is aimed to examine the mediating role of hopelessness in the relationship between the negative automatic thoughts that are known and the tendency of aggression.</em></p> <p><em>Automatic Thoughts are accepted as the most superficial cognitive level affecting our emotions and behaviors. According to Aaron Beck's cognitive model, negative automatic thoughts occur as a result of the life events which are activating schemas that are formed in our childhood. There are many studies in the literature that relate negative automatic thoughts with emotional regulation. Studies on the relationship between negative automatic thoughts and level of hopelessness are also found in the literature.</em></p> <p><em>The aggression tendency is one of the explanations about the reason for the aggression that is caused by the inability to control and suppress emotions. In this context, aggression can be considered as a result of emotional dysregulation. Considering the fact that negative automatic thoughts convey our emotions and behaviors without conscious judgment, a relationship between aggressive tendency and negative automatic thoughts is expected. Here, the effect of the hopelessness, which is known to be related to automatic thoughts, on this relationship will be discussed.</em></p> <p><em>In this study, ‘Negative Automatic Thoughts Scale’, ‘Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire’ and, ‘Beck Hopelessness Scale’ were applied to university students.</em></p> <p><em>A total of 112 participants were included in the study. The results of 19 participants were substracted because of unanswered questions in the scales. The average age of the participants in the sample was 19.9. The participants consisted of Acıbadem Mehmet Ali Aydınlar University undergraduate and associate degree students. 28% of respondents state that they are constantly thinking that there is a need of change.&nbsp; 29% of the respondents say that “Sometimes I feel like a bomb ready to explode”. </em></p> <p><em>It can be seen that there is a relationship between aggression and negative automatic thoughts. In this context, it is possible to focus on the effects of cognitive behavioral therapies on the aggressive tendency.</em></p> Lerzan Tuğdem BERNA ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 18 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0300 PUNISHMENT AND VIOLENCE IN EDUCATION DURING THE LAST CENTURY OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE AND THE EARLY YEARS OF THE REPUBLIC <p>The aim of this study is to examine the punishment and violence-based practices applied to the students in the last century of the Ottoman Empire and in the early years of the Republic and to present the information on the subject based on the sources. It is insufficient to understand the discipline and practices of Ottoman educational institutions only with regulations and instructions. Therefore, we have benefited from memories, school memories and autobiographies which are important in educational history studies. In addition to these, we frequently included the publications of our researchers historians who studied the last century of the Ottoman Empire, and in light of these, we tried to analyze the case of punishment and violence in education in the last century of the Ottoman Empire and in the early years of the Republic.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Rezzan AKÇATEPE ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 18 Dec 2019 01:18:58 +0300 SELF HARM BEHAVOIR <p><em>In this study, it is aimed to examine this research from a wide perspective and to emphasize the importance of more specific studies on the subject.</em></p> <p><em>In this research, national and international studies on self-harm behavior were compiled.</em></p> <p><em>Self-injurious behavior is frequently encountered as an advanced behavioral problem. (Şipal, 2010) Self-injurious behavior is that a person can harm one's own tissues in such a way as to cause severe acts without the will to die consciously. Self-injurious behavior is associated with many psychiatric disorders. In addition, deliberate self-harm behavior should be separated from suicide attempts. Self-injurious behavior usually begins in adolescence. “In the community sample studies, it was found that self-injurious behavior was seen in 1/3 and 1/2 of adolescents (Lloyd-Richardson et al. 2007, Yates et al. 2008). self-injurious behavior typically begins in adolescence and often occurs impulsively; adolescents and young adulthood (Claassen et al. 2006) (Bildik, Somer, Basay, Basay, &amp;Ozbaran, 2012). According to the results of the study, identity confusion and low self-esteem symptoms were found to be significantly more frequent in adolescents with self-injurious behavior (Akdemir, Zeki, Unal, Kara, &amp; Cetin, 2013). It is observed that traumas experienced in the past are related to deliberate self-harm behavior. There are many reasons for self-harm behavior. One of them is abuse. If the trauma experienced is remembered, self-harm behavior arises in order to replace the high level of anxiety with physical pain. Miller and Favazza investigated the reasons for self-mutilation and listed the factors that caused self-mutilation as follows: To have a sense of relaxation; Suppressing emotional pain; Moving away from the feeling of emptiness to show their experiences.(Aksoy, Ögel, 2003). However, in individuals who frequently repeat the act of self-harm, feelings of embarrassment, guilt, regret, and desire for social isolation may also be exacerbated by the stimulation of other negative emotions. (Gratz, 2003) It has been suggested that there may be many biological factors under self-harm behavior. Some of them are opiate system disorder, hypersensitivity of dopamine receptors, decrease in the amount of serotonin. There are psychodynamic opinions about self-harm behavior. Emerson (1913) and Fenichel (1945) stated that self-harm behavior is a substitute for masturbation and is equivalent. Then, behaviorists related to self-harm behavior started to study. According to the behavioral approach, self-harm behavior was later learned and considered as a sense of self-protection against the difficulties of life.</em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;Intentional self-harm behavior is difficult to explain, but in recent years it has attracted attention by researchers (Chapman, Gratz, &amp; Brown, 2006). In line with the literature review on the subject, it is seen that the studies on this subject need to be more detailed and more specialized case groups should be examined.</em></p> Sena OYMAK ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 18 Dec 2019 01:21:44 +0300 LEGAL ANALYSIS OF SEXTORTION CRIME IN THE COMPERATIVE LAW AND TURKISH LAW <p><em>Due to technological developments, cybercrime techniques evolve day by day. Nowadays, innocent users have been the target of cybercriminals who want to make money or extort sexual favor in the context of sextortion crime. This paper discusses the definition of sextortion with the techniques used by the criminals, legal framework of aforementioned crime in Turkey and discusses how to prevent and solve past crimes.</em></p> Ceren KÜPELİ ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 18 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0300 KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND BEHAVIOR STUDY ON DATING VIOLENCE <p><em>The main purpose of this study is to examine the perception of dating violence of individuals who differ in terms of age, gender and education level, and to what extent they are aware of the severity of dating they may be exposed to and the impact of this situation on them. The research was conducted via the internet in Turkey. A questionnaire was applied to all participants from all age groups and all education levels above the age of 18. 74% of the participants were women and 26% were men; it is stated that 6% of them had no dating relationship until today. 79.6% of the participants stated that they witnessed the dating violence and 33.5% stated that jealousy is a sign of love. In a question where it is possible to mark more than one option, 63.6% of the participants deemed neglecting, 41.8% of the participants deemed preventing to meet with their family and friends, 23% of the participants deemed forcing to a sexual intercourse in the scope of dating violence. Dating violence is a type of violence that is frequently encountered in daily life, but social and individual awareness is not at a desired level. Our survey, that we had parallel results with the prior surveys, shows that many people perceive the dating period as the previous stage before the relationship. Since, the violence among spouses during relationship, engagement and marriage are not considered in the scope of dating violence, the findings do not provide the exact number of people who are exposed to dating violence.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ceren KAHVECİ, Merve KÖYLÜOĞLU, Cemre Sude ÖZDEK, Dilan ORAK ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 18 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0300